On The Natural Faculties [E–pub/Kindle]

Babymouse for President (Babymouse
E been a standard idiom from its freuent use in this blood Connection to this bread is my flesh this wine is my blood of Christianity The phrase Need for studying the works of the Ancients carefully in order to reach a proper understanding of this subject Seems like the real authorities on useless anatomy died centuries before Galen
s time good 
time Good performing surgery based on As I proceeded through the pages about urine bile and digestion I had difficulty understanding why Galen was included in Britannica s Great Books list Then I came to this passage Britannica s Great Books list Then I came to this passage the end While however the statements which the Ancients made on these points were correct they yet omitted to defend their arguments with logical proofs of course they never suspected that there could be sophists so shameless as to try to contradict obvious facts More recent physicians again have been partly conuered by the sophistries of these fellows and have given credence to them whilst others who attempted to argue with them appear to me to lack to a great extent the power of the Ancients For this reason I have attempted to put together my arguments in the way in which it seems to me the Ancients had any of them been still alive would have done in opposition to those who would overturn the finest doctrines of our art I am not however unaware that I shall achieve either nothing at all or else very little For I find that a great many things which have been conclusively demonstrated by the Ancients are unintelligible to the bulk of the Moderns owing to their ignorance nay that by reason of their laziness they will not even make an attempt to comprehend them and even if any of them have understood them they have not given them impartial examination The fact is that he whose purpose is to now anything better than the multitude do must far surpass all others both as regards his nature and his early training And when he reaches early adolescence he must become possessed with an ardent love for truth like one inspired neither day nor night may he cease to urge and strain himself in order to learn thoroughly all that has been said by the most illustrious of the Ancients And when he has learnt this then for a prolonged period he must test and prove it observing what part of it is in agreement and what in disagreement with obvious fact thus he will choose this and turn away from that To such an one my hope has been that my treatise would prove of the very greatest assistance Still such people may be expected to be uite few in number while as for the others this book will be as superfluous to them as a tale told to an ass pgs75 76 After some outside research ie Wikipedia and Google it became apparent that Galen was the authority on medicine until the Renaissance His authoritative claims went unchallenged for over a millenniaGalen does not hide his contempt for his contemporaries who classify themselves as Erasistrateans or Asclepiadeans Galen considered himself beyond such labels and dedicated himself to critical analysis He suffers no fools as he haughtily dismisses the theories that fail to survive his experimentation and logical conclusions A true empiricist he devotes himself to uestioning all theories and constructing medical proofs while simultaneously reverently referring to his predecessors whom he deemed worthy especially Hippocrates and AristotleThough Galen s importance in medical history is probably not much debated the actual work itself yields little to anyone today except medical historians Galen was referring to his contemporaries in the above uote but sadly On the Natural Faculties is not a timeless work and to myself and most readers will truly be as superfluous as a tale told to an ass. Niversity College Dundee and Sir W T Thiselton Dyer late director of the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew have very indly helped me to identify several animals and plants mentioned by Galen I cannot conclude without expressing a word of gratitude to my former biological teachers Professors Patrick Geddes and J Arthur Thomson The experience reared on the foundation of their teaching has gone far to help me in interpreting the great medical biologist of Greece I should be glad to think that the present work might help however little to hasten the coming reunion between the “humanities” and modern biological science; their present separation I believe to be against the best interest of both A J B 22nd Stationary Hospital Aldershot March 1916. .

Galen ✓ 6 read

Simplistic But it s hard to shake off as entirely false The Roman national epic the Aeneid was a self conscious attempt to emulate Homer Roman arts and architecture were manifestly influenced by the Greeks and the major Roman philosophical efforts were recapitulations of Greek thinkers Plotinus the Neo Platonist Lucretius the Epicurean Marcus Aurelius the *STOIC NOW WE HAVE GALEN TO ADD TO THE *Now we have Galen to add "To The The Dogmatic Adherent Of Hippocrates Well I Don "the the dogmatic adherent of Hippocrates Well I don want to push that too far because surely it is simplistic But one thing that I am absolutely certain of is that I wouldn t want Galen as my physician It s a most systematic and authoritative argument for his own take on scientific medicine in his day and make no wonder Marcus Aurelius wanted him as his personal doctor when off to fight the Germans and not much at Galen s stubbornly staying in Pergamum in preference A biological treatise mixed with some philosophical mattersIt s an advancement over previous works like Hippocrates even though he is well mentioned for considering nature a beauty and having certain facultiesTreats food specially honey relationship with health citing Erasistratus Hippocrates and othersHis talks on human parts like uterus and stomach is way technical than previous philosophersThis isn t a ind of book I like just the same as Aristotle books on biology except the latter is a bit interesting due to curiosities noted by the author Galen s 200 AD view of medicine was based on that of his hero Hippocrates and was the standard view of medicine until the 1530s when Vesalius conducted his researches Galen s emphasis on the importance of blood letting in certain circumstances influenced medicine as late as the 1800sMuch of this book is an animated and by today s standards fairly vicious attack on the alleged idiocy of those who held views different from his own its value lies in the arguments Galen puts forward to combat those views since these arguments explain his own theories and even give some of the reasons for those theories based on his extensive practical experience For example arguing against atomic theory the classical version not today s in favour of continuous matter Galen insists that the body actively converts food into bile and the like against his opponents view that these elemental parts are already present in the food itself and the body simply separates them out Similarly opponents maintained that urine separated from blood because it was the thinner fluid and was extracted through channels that blood was too thick to enter Galen argues instead that the idneys extract urine from the blood and pass it to the bladder using an attractive faculty like that used by lodestone to attract metalAn interesting read for those interested in the development both of ideas in general and medicine in particular Galen is debatably less wrong than the earlier Greek physicians whom he so viciously decries but his crude anatomical theories have little bearing on modern medicine This edition is poorly edited and poorly laid out The Loeb Classics edition is much better but really why bother Light but not entertaining reading and hard to see how it would be practically useful Galen presents his view of what the organs do sometimes he is right sometimes he is wrong The ideas in this book seem useless to an ancient doctor It does not contain empirical observations like beans make you fat or fish gives a long life instead it discusses ideas like that urine comes from the urinary bladder points out that the gall blader is very different from the urinary bladder notes that it is weird that the body can transform bread to blood This book feels like ancient infotainment Bread to blood seems to hav. like ancient infotainment Bread to blood seems to hav. my own version with Linacre’s Latin translation 1523 and the French rendering of Charles Daremberg 1854 56; in this respect I am also peculiarly fortunate in having had the help of Mr A W Pickard Cambridge of Balliol College Oxford who most indly went through the Pg vi proofs and made many valuable suggestions from the point of view of exact scholarship My best thanks are due to the Editors for their courtesy and for the indly interest they have taken in the work I have also gratefully to acknowledge the receipt of much assistance and encouragement from Sir William Osler Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford and from Dr J D Comrie first lecturer on the History of Medicine at Edinburgh University Professor D’Arcy W Thompson of Watching an ancient mind think especially on a topic like science helps clear away modern snobbishness Help me out MDs Am I right in seeing Galen as a progression and perhaps even a corrective to Hippocrates Eristitatus and others Since my background in life science is very limited I hesitate to be either critical or precise I now about physiology now than before I read this so you can t really lose by reading this can you I might suggest reading a little Hippocrates first as I did to provide a little context Apart from whatever merit Galen s work has this is a terrible edition Amateurish cheap antiuated and typo ridden I ve heard this comes in the superb Loeb edition and if you re really interested in Galen no doubt that s the one to get Back to Galen himself The man made some progress but was still incredibly ignorant about the way the body worked And to jump from him to Harvey is to instantly realize how startlingly little medicine progressed between Galen s time and the 1600s AD Saddening but interesting and very much in contrast with the speedy march of new advances in the field in the last century The fact is that those who are enslaved to their sects are not merely devoid of all sound nowledge but they will not even stop to learn This little book was appended to my Great Books of the Western World copy of the Hippocratic writings so I decided to go ahead and read it I m not sure I m happy with that decision Having by now read my fair share of ancient science I must confess that the experience is often stultifyingly dull and this little treatise was one of the worst I ve so far read Well who was Galen It s a name we don t often hear nowadays but Galen s influence was according to everything I ve heard enormous From his death to the Renaissance Galen was the major authority in medicine To me this is both depressing and terrifying because Galen does not make a good impression in this treatise In truth he often comes across as an oaf Galen begins with the Aristotelian premise that nature does nothing in vain and from there attempts to prove that the internal organs function because they have certain faculties He is defending the doctrine of the four humors which is found in both Aristotle and Hippocrates against his main nemesis Erasistratus who subscribes to the atomic theory of matter The treatise then alternates between fallacious reasoning mind numbing and inaccurate descriptions of the workings of internal organs and vituperation of all who disagree with him whom Galen dismisses as mindless sectarians simpletons or as lacking sufficient reverence for the wise ancients Meanwhile Galen s recriminations are hypocritical in the extreme For one he is himself a sectarian digging in his heels to defend the Hippocratic school What s his reasoning is often euivalent to that parodied by Moli re who has a uack explain how opium puts people to sleep by citing opium s soporific power Consider the followingIt has been made in the preceding discussion that nutrition occurs by an alteration or assimilation of that which nourishes to that which nourishment and that there exists in every part of the animal a faculty which in view of its activity we call in general terms alterative or specifically assimilative and nutritiveIn other words nutrition occurs because of the nutritive faculty In fact the contents of this book can be summarized like so Bodily organs attract and retain what is of their nature and expel what is foreign by means of their faculties There is a common stereotype about Roman culture which I means of their faculties There is a common stereotype about Roman culture which I to believe because it is a stereotype that the Romans were unoriginal and cultural parasites of the Greeks Surely that seems. The text used is with a few unimportant modifications that of Kühn Vol II as edited by Georg Helmreich; Teubner Leipzig 1893 The numbers of the pages of Kühn’s edition are printed at the side of the Greek text a parallel mark || in the line indicating the exact point of division between Kühn’s pages Words in the English text which are enclosed in suare brackets are supplementary or explanatory; practically all explanations however are relegated to the footnotes or introduction In the footnotes also attention is drawn to words which are of particular philological interest from the point of view of modern medicine I have made the translation directly from the Greek; where passages of special difficulty occurred I have been able to com. On The Natural Faculties