[The Great Divergence China Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy] EBOOK / PDF

Rich Dope Boys Side Chicks dSsil fuels first instead ofefining modernity with awkward cultural claims The East often was on a par or ahead of the West The New World s raw resources may have mattered than actual money obtained thereMuch food for thoughtUpdate 9292016 Re read the book I bumped my rating from 3 stars to 4 A second read reveals the strength of the writing which one Mr Pants doesn t notice the first time because of theense ideas Pomeranz has a The Alchemy of Secrets debt to Max Weber in thinking that capitalism appeared around the world at an early time Unlike Weber Pomeranzoesn t think capitalism is the inevitable form of modern civilization Pomeranz raws from Thomas Malthus s idea of resource traps civilizations are bogged own just feeding themselves never mind using natural resources for industrialization Supplies from America helped Britain escape its Malthusian limits China which experienced population growth in poor rural areas had to spend resources on feeding people this process succeeded but African American Literature in Transition, 1850-1865 didn t leave much material left to use in industry Very important book with ideas that were groundbreaking at the time but needlesslyense Pomeranz argues in a book which has become uite influential of late Martin Jacues for example relies on Pomeranz revisionist history that the great BeMos Ultimate Guide to CASPer Test Prep divergence of China and the West only occurs about 1800 that before that time China was if anything ahead and that theivergence came as a result of fortuitous and purely material circumstances viz as the world exhausted its supplies of energy wood England had ready access to large African American Psychology: From Africa to America deposits of coal that lay near its industrial heartland while China had coal but it was in the north and northwest and at aistance from the industrial areas and because Europe also had a sudden access to large uantities of natural resources in the New WorldOf course this begs the uestion as to why it was Europe and not China that engaged in a period of Discovery that Europe as Mokyr has argued was already ahead in early forms of industrialization well before 1800 Alien Oceans during the 16th and 17th centuries why it was Europe that built and then USED guns eg and not China which had invented gunpowder etc etcWhile there are many factors there can be little uestion that Europe brought something cultural to the table The Spirit of Protestantism of course was Weber s answer But there is something to be added to this namely to use JH Parry s brilliant phrase an extreme readiness to apply science in immediately practical ways Age of Reconnaissance p 15The Chinese had technology gunpowder and they had theory science but like the Greeks of the Hellenistic period who only used their Europe and the West by extension gets their balls clipped in this magisterial mostly economic history comparing and integrating the opposite ends of Eurasia Ken argues that by 1750 Europe meaning Britain and East Asia China and Japan were basically at the same stage of economicevelopment type and suffering from the same ecological constraints It was only the accident of geography and juxtaposition that allowed parts of western Europe to exploit the New World and surge forth A lot of that has to Black Families in Therapy Understanding the African American Experience do with the bloodthirsty nature of European expansion but Kennyoesn t go into that too much This is very much an economic history and a look at how things are the same than TROY different in a global perspective The greativergence summed up would be as follows there is this theory on why China was Combinatorial Algorithms: Generation, Enumeration, and Search (Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications) different from Europe and that is why Europe become the economic powerhouse and not china then Kenneth Pomeranz steps in and in aozen or so pages filled with tons of Die Wasserfrage im Nahen und Mittleren Osten: Literatur seit 1985 : eine Auswahlbibliographie = Water in the Middle East and North Africa : literature ... Middle East documentation service. Series A) data and comparative analysis or case studies points out how much assumption and how little fact based research is in this specific theory and up we go to the next theory It is as if the author was sick and tired of the many stereotypical assumptions on China and Japan when compared to western Europe that heecided to list all the things he heard and systematically The Souls of Black Folk disproved them so he could easily counter the said assumptions inebates ah but your theory is flawed for I have actually studied the Eating the Elephant data and they tell me you are wrong I get why he chose this approach and style for his book but Iid not like it in short if your not already The Alien's Patient deep in the subject the book will feel as a blur afterwards with a few general impressions in stead of a few solid arguments Well except for the final statement spoiler rather than pretend we are seeking theifferences among truly independent entities on the eve of industrialization we must acknowledge the importance of pre existing connections in creating those The Art of Taking Action differences This statement refers to his big counterpoint to the many theories which heenounces as following It makes for an awkward marriage between history and economics at least schools of economics that posit single euilibrium as the Sotello DeLeos Action Thriller Singles destination towards a given system trends a form of intellectual anarchy The author is adamant that it was the existence of the new world and European colonies there in particular those of the United Kingdom that proved to be theefining edge and factor in allowing the possibility of mass industrialization For both China and west Europe and to a lesser extent Japan had strong core regions with proto industries an emerging consumer class a changing relations with regional peripheries and a similar ecological challenge that limited the growth of aforementioned factors there were ifferences between West Europe and East Asia only a lot of the times not as the theories assume them to be for example it seemed China and Japan in the 18th century were closer to the Adam Smith idea of a classic market economy with companies and market oriented farmerscraftmen then most of Europe was including Great Britain and the Netherlands In the end it all boils Down To The Fact to the fact most theories on why Europe rose above Asia refrain from taking into account the ominance of Europe over the Atlantic trade the trade in silver slaves cloth rugs sugar tabacco coffee and energy foodtimber that allowed Europe to circumvent ecological limitations that East Asia had and could not circumvent with relatively limited expansions in the pacific south east asia siberia or central Asia And even then still East Asia outranked Europe on a few fronts such as life expectancy capital accumulation and while Europe WAS THE BIGGER FACTOR WAR INVESTMENTS AND RESEARCH THE the bigger factor war investments and research the makes a strong case of ismantling the seemingly obvious advantage this brought for Europe With noted exception of coal for the author there is no African American Women with Incarcerated Mates denying the obviousifference that europe had coal and importantly great Britain had coal as it id have a lot of alternative food timber and energy foods for workers while China had not in the 18th19th century or limited uses for it at the time "But as the author points out if coal is the main factor "as the author points out if coal is the main factor a huge factor then there is little room for big theories and economic models explaining the inevitable rise of Europe and its civilization and thus these theories tend to ownplay coal All in all I liked the theme and purpose of the book but it needed a story As it is now it is rather boring to read if your not fully part of the A Kid's Guide to African American History discussion and now the nuances of the theories and positions I have a limited affinity with the subject so I could keep track but Io prefer a historical narrative over a His Abused Mate dry comparison Weo get a narrative but you have to piece it together For instance on why China and Japan had less use for coal to begin with China and Japan either had to grow food for workers or cotton for material but the first would mean less material and the second less workers ergo an ecological catch 22 that limited the proto industry and thus a potential mechanized industry to speak even less of growing sugar to a scale to help sustain a proletariat While Great Britain could grow cotton in the Americas and thus grow food and material at the same time by regional specialization on massive scale another example would be on how luxery interacted with the growth of a capitalist society an interesting approach but it needed I Oral Tradition in African Literature did not uite get the subtleifferences which would not have been the case if there had been some space for presenting societies aspects of need for luxury a lot of luxury guides are mentioned yet we get very little content from them So we Change Leadership in Higher Education do get a narrative but it is all over the place I would have loved a general societal structure analysis before weove into all the theoretical comparisons Still if you are into this material and tend to believe the Europe was Oral Tradition in African Literature destined to be topog check it out and challenge your views especially if you insists on Icons of African American Literature data comparison A very fun book to read Pomeranz takes a sledgehammer to older ideas of European exceptionalism and Weberian ideas of a nebulous capitalist spirit instead suggesting that until about 1800 Europe and China precisely England and the Yangzielta were on very comparable courses They had a similar life expectancy levels of commercial ROMANCE development and comparableemand for new goods Both were approaching a population ceiling and were as a result taking a very heavy toll on the local ecology Pomeranz s main point is that England moved on to industrialization while the Yangzi The Little Red Book deltaid not for two reasons England s coal Blended Family (A contemporary BWWM African American Interracial Romance) ((The April and Derek Series) Book 1) deposits were much nearer to their sites of economicevelopment encouraging a switch from the increasingly scarce timber to coal and England s access to their colonies on the New World which could provide them with all the land intensive products they lacked Style in African Literature domestically In a lot of ways it s portrayed as an accidentalevelopment a sort of geographical fluke that England became the world s first industrial power It s a really fascinating read though occasionally a bit Alien Savior (Zerconian Warriors, dense I m not sure that I entirely agree with it Pomeranz s first section that underlines the pre 1750 similarity of England and the Yangzi Delta is really great at least to a non specialist on China but I m slightly skeptical that industrialization was as accidental as it was portrayed here There s a total rejection of cultural factors iniffering Lets Clap, Jump, Sing Shout; Dance, Spin Turn It Out! developments I can understand this because broad unsubstantiated culturalifferences have played too large a role in scholarship of this sort in the past But I Italian Grammar (Quickstudy Reference Guides - Academic) do think that culture is important here particularly in trying to figure out why Englandove headfirst into technological innovation and China Cities of Farmers did not Pomeranz goes into this a bit but it s not always convincing as a complete portrait I m not sure for example whyistant coal Muddying the Waters deposits should be soamning for an empire that had such good systems of water transportation Those caveats aside though it s a really interesting book Particularly for fans of history who have had a largely European perspective. G increased imports rather than maximizing yields Together coal and the New World allowed Europe to grow along resource intensive labor saving pathsMeanwhile Asia hit a cul e sac Although the East Asian hinterlands boomed after 1750 both in population and in manufacturing this growth prevented these peripheral regions from exporting vital resources to the cloth producing Yangzi Delta As a result growth in the core of East Asia's economy essentially stopped and what growth id exist was forced along labor intensive resource saving paths paths Europe could have been forced own too had it not been for favorable resource stocks from underground and overseas. The Great Divergence China Europe and the Making of the Modern World EconomyExcellent super in epth Hes Opposing Counsel discussion of why Europe surpassed China in the early modern period 1500 1800 even though China was technologically economically and financially advanced than Europe prior to that and as late as 1750s Overall he underestimates the effects of colonialism and imperialism and seems to overestimate the role of coal but I m not an expert on this But really good anyway The comparisons will blow you away Main complaint people usually have is that it is tooetailed and slow to read It is hardly news that the West has led the world economically for the past 200 years or This superiority let s be honest that s what it is academics commonly call the Great Divergence a term coined by Samuel Huntington in 1996 though the study of Western economic superiority began much earlier There are many sub uestions one can ask eg what constitutes the West Is it England England and parts of the Continent How Articles on Bloom County, Including: Berkeley Breathed, Billy and the Boingers, the Academia Waltz, Opus (Comic Strip), Outland (Comic Strip), Minor Characters in Bloom County, a Wish for Wings That Work, Goodnight Opus, the Last Basselope does America fit in When exactlyid this takeoff begin Are other countries now catching up or even passing the West But these sub uestions are all small change compared to the most important uestion why The Rise of Nerd Politics did the Westiverge from the rest of the world at all when all of world history up to that time exemplified the Malthusian Trap where productivity increased too slowly to increase per capita output even when aggregate output increasedI once saw a list of roughly 200 Motivational Enhancement Therapy Manual: A Clinical Research Guide for Therapists Treating Individuals With Alcohol Abuse and Dependence different answers to this uestion each with academic citations Probably some of them were Captain Crazy ideas tied to theories like the Phantom Time Hypothesis look it up But most of them were at least superficially plausible Wading through this morass is not for the faint of heart especially because this is one of those uestions where many people want a single answer and the answer may well be all of the above or at least many of the above But upon examination it is possible toivide works examining the Great Divergence along three axes One is academic vs popular writing Another is unitary or largely unitary theories vs theories that ascribe the Boku no Hero Academia dj - 爆豪、ケツの穴開発するってよ。 [Bakugou, Ketsu no Ana Kaihatsu Surutte yo.] difference to a multiplicity of factors And the third axis is those theories that cite culturalifferences vs those that cite material or economic Manga Mania Magical Girls and Friends How to Draw the Super Popular Action Fantasy Characters of Manga differences This book Kenneth Pomeranz s The Great Divergence falls suarely into the academic unitary material bucket It is a scholarly and thought provoking book not without failings but forceful in its conclusions and compelling in much of its analysisAs far as the writing itself goes this book is a blend of extreme clarity combined with unfortunate opacity It is clear in that Pomeranz precisely states every single one of his arguments identifies opposing arguments marshals the facts and gives his conclusions appropriately hedged if necessary The reader is grateful for this focus on academic excellence The opacity comes in with the phrasing which is infected with a heavyose of academic speak It s not Inside Academia dreadful and the careful reader can understand everything But Pomeranzoes not try to grab the reader s attention find compelling turns of phrase or Protest Politics in the Marketplace dazzle the reader with his analogies In this he is the opposite of popular authors such as Jared Diamond author of Guns Germs and Steel which posits that Europeans were the lucky beneficiary of a series of ecological rolls of theice whose book is mostly flash though that Celestial Tears Hidden Alchemy does not mean Diamond is wrong So careful reading of Pomeranz s book is a chore An interesting chore perhaps like mucking out the stables of a herd of unicorns but still a chorePomeranz begins in his Introduction by narrowing the scope of theiscussion Every careful author on the topic has to The Exposition of Artistic Research do this or the size and scope of the topic will necessarily overwhelm What specific countries are we examining What time period are we talking about What measures are we using Pomeranzoes this and he applies the same narrowing analysis to both the West and to Eurasia which is his main comparison area Thus he ascribes to England the prime mover role he focuses on the first Industrial Revolution beginning around 1800 and he uses mostly precisely ROMANCE (BWWM Contemporary Romance Boxset) (African American Pregnancy Interracial Multicultural Book 1) defined but narrow economic measures which are widely available for England but less so for Eurasia a problem he works hard to remedy He sometimes brings inata from other European countries as parallels eg France the Netherlands or as contrasts eg Denmark Similarly as to Eurasia he focuses mostly on parts of China east and southeast and most of all the Yangzi Delta sometimes bringing in Shallow Grave data from other Asian countries Japan and India and sometimes contrasting to other areas of China which given China s size is roughly analogous to comparingifferent European countries to each otherPomeranz s analytical and argumentative framework is as follows First European progress prior to 1800 was not significantly advanced beyond the most advanced portions of China Past authors thought it was but new The Economics of Agricultural Development data has made what were previously thought uniue European achievements look and ordinary Second past authors ignored the other than superficial benefits of the New World to Europe They focused on metals but it was much than that the New World relieved ecological pressures that Europe faced primarily land constraint where an increasing population would otherwise have beenoomed to increase agricultural output through and less efficient use of labor the curse of iminishing returns and would not have had access to necessary supplies such as timber and fiber Third England s easy access to large volumes of coal was uniue and it was this that made exponentially increasing energy production needed for "possible Fourth Europe s whether that means capital accumulation markets technological inventiveness state protection of property contractual rights "Fourth Europe s institutions whether that means capital accumulation markets technological inventiveness state protection of property contractual rights structures or other of the multitude of factors adduced by other authors were not in fact superior to Chinese structures in their actual impact as that relates to the Industrial Revolution they may have been superior for human society and they may have been somewhat superior for certain aspects of expansion but they were not eterminative In short Pomeranz focuses on what was truly globally scarce land and energy and concludes that the edge Europe and particularly England had was land and energy at exactly the time they needed it This framework is the sum of the book and it is clearly laid out in the Introduction The rest of the book The Pocket Guide to Action divided into three parts and six chapters merely addsetail and plenty of itPart One is Algorithms for Clustering Data (Prentice Hall Advanced Reference Series : Computer Science) devoted tooubting various contentions that Europe had an internally generated economic edge before 1800 instead positing broad similarities among the most Made to Crave Action Plan Participants Guide densely populated and commercialized parts of the Old World ie the entire world of the time Pomeranz identifies this as the mainifference between his and the mainstream position with the latter holding that the takeoff of the Industrial Revolution was just the fully visible effect of underlying ifferences proceeding into the past although there is little agreement among mainstream proponents of what exactly those ifferences were Pomeranz goes through the various candidates for pre existing relevant My Lover differences ranging fromifferent types of accumulated and non accumulated capital mostly non monetary life expectancy birthrates technology market characteristics which gets their own chapter and so on He addresses each and concludes it fails to Alcohol Addiction demonstrate a realifference between China and Europe prior to 1800It is in Part One though that the two major faults of this book show up an eagerness bordering on Mobilizing New York desperation to tout Chinese accomplishments while minimizing European accomplishments and a failure to adeuately acknowledge a fact obvious from the text thatata for China is extremely limited and therefore can only be used with extreme caution especially as a comparison to the much voluminous Aspects of South African Literature data available from EuropeAs to the first fault for example Pomeranz begins by admitting that Europe was advanced technologically and had a culture open to science Then he backpedals rapidly claiming that he has shown that European productivity was not higher and therefore it is unlikely that the average level of technology Europeanseployed was superior This is The Barefoot Girl: A Novel of St. Margaret, Patroness of the Abused deficient logic since productivity is not linearly tied to technology and anyway Pomeranz has not shown andoes not show that European productivity was not higher And notably here and in similar sections where Pomeranz stretches to reach a conclusion he Social Media in Academia desires the word clearly shows up repeatedly My legal writing teacher my first year of law school was useless even if today she is theean of a relatively high profile law school but she Dream Save Do: Life is Short, Live Your Dream did tell us one thing that was correct anyone who uses the word clearly is trying to cover up that what he says is not actually clear at allPomeranz tries to avoid the implications of his initial admission about superior European technology by claiming that in many ways various non European societies remained ahead For this he cites irrigation as being superior in China Nooubt but irrigation was not needed in Europe both because rainfall was constant and because rice was not the main crop so it is hardly surprising that Europeans Orality in Igbo (African) Literature did not focus on the technology of irrigation Then he starts rambling about land in the New World prefiguring one of his main contentions but not sticking to the point at hand Then he says that India was better at hand textile weaving andyeing which is true enough but irrelevant and that India is today still the leader in hand weaving seems relevant but is not mentioned here And then he says that various parts of Africa which produced large amounts of iron and steel that were of a uality at least as good as anything available in early modern Europe That seems unlikely unless he means Damascus which isn t in Africa Then he claims that the only reason Europe had formal scientific societies was because they were often essential to protecting science from a hostile established Church which is very bad history given that such societies arose long after the heyday of Church power and in the case of England where the most important such society was totally outside any Church power and that the Church was by far the biggest supporter of scientific progress in the Middle Ages and Modern English in Action (Level 12) during the Renaissance All of this is merely flailing that never gets around to any concrete proof that various non European societies remained ahead Pomeranz would have been well advised simply to claim lack of certainty something heoes constantly with respect to China as I note below about the relative state of technology and move on It may be that those academics who claim superiority for Europe in both technology and scientific thinking are wrong But Pomeranz fails miserably to sho. The Great Divergence brings new insight to one of the classic uestions of history Why Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms did sustained industrial growth begin in Northwest Europeespite surprising similarities between advanced areas of Europe and East Asia As Ken Pomeranz shows as recently as 1750 parallels between these two parts of the world were very high in life expectancy consumption product and factor markets and the strategies of households Perhaps most surprisingly Pomeranz emonstrates that the Chinese and Japanese cores were no worse off ecologically than Western Europe Core areas throughout the eighteenth century Old World faced comparable local shortages of land intensive prod.

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W that to be the caseAlong the same lines it seems unlikely that European monarchs imitated the Chinese ritual of having the emperor plow the year s first furrow I have never heard of such a custom but to the extent it existed in Europe it seems like a pretty obvious possible ritual for a monarch and very unlikely to have been copied from remote China But gullibly ascribing such imitation gives a window into Pomeranz s esperation to build up China at European expense Moreover Pomeranz is fond of making sweeping generalizations on little evidence as long as they favor China such as claiming that keeping Chinese women at home kept China almost factory less even though every other factor available capital technological inventiveness and so on made it as good a candidate for industrialization as Europe Pomeranz The Alcohol Blackout: Walking, Talking, Unconscious Lethal does aecent job showing some evidence for this position but his conclusion is hardly justified and the great weight of evidence suggests that China was very much lacking in technological inventiveness but rather had a Digital Feminist Activism: Girls and Women Fight Back Against Rape Culture decent amount of scattered tinkering ability which is very much not the same thing Toby Huff has written extensively on thisistinction in his The Rise of Early Modern Science Similarly Pomeranz repeatedly claims that hundreds of years before the Industrial Revolution China had spinning euipment very close to the machines that revolutionized English cotton spinning four hundred plus years later which The Story of Han Xiangzi: The Alchemical Adventures of a Daoist Immortal (China Program Book) differed in just one crucialetail which he Alien Mate (Zerconian Warriors, does not specify Maybe that s true but I can find no other evidence for it and if it s true it just goes to prove the lack of Chinese technological inventiveness suggesting those who allege Chinese culturaleficiencies in the application of technology are correctAs to the second major fault to take just one example on page 63 where Pomeranz is The Responsible Critic: Essays on African Literature, in Honor of Professor Ben Obumselu discussing Chinese iron and coal production a crucial uestion because of the importance of iron and steel to industrialization and because the efficient use of coal is highly correlated to the expansion of iron and steel production in the course of ONE PAGE Pomeranz radically ualifies statements about Chineseata in twelve Race, Culture and Identity in Francophone West African and Caribbean Literature and Theory: From Negritude to Creolite (Francophone Cultures and Literatures, Vol. 32) different ways seem to have known it is unclear a critical study says very little about fuel leading one to suspect we still know very little this study suggests there is still much weo not know it is unclear a Hot African American Erotica distinct possibility even if it turns out if itid might well have been Such language appears continuously throughout the book almost exclusively in sections examining facts about China critical to Pomeranz s entire thesis The simple fact seems to be that we Advancing Biological Farming don t know nearly enough to support the claims Pomeranz makes about China to make comparisonsespite Pomeranz in multiple appendixes working to construct such Cards Of Alchemy data in narrow areas such as Estimates of Manure Applied to North China and European Farms in the Late Eighteenth Century and a Comparison of Resulting Nitrogen Fluxes He clearly worked very hard but the result is not all that convincing Whichoesn t mean he s wrong but it may well mean the The Hermetic and Alchemical Writings of Paracelsus Forgotten Books data is simply not available and never will bePomeranz concludes Part One by claiming that European science technology and philosophical inclinations aloneo not seem an adeuate explanation But this is assuming the conclusion because he never tell us why that should be especially because by this very statement he admits the superiority of European science technology and philosophical inclinations It s just a bunch of hand waving so that he can spend the rest of the book talking about coal and the New World and the real Purely Academic drivers of the Great Divergence Which is fine but itoes suggest that the premise on which he builds the rest of the book rests on fragile foundations at best Of course many authors have written entire books on this topic see eg both Huff and Gregory Clark s Farewell To Alms so I suppose you can t really aggressively fault Pomeranz for not wanting to get bogged The Academic Job Search Handbook down and to instead want to turn to what he brings to the table that s newIn Part Two Pomeranz treats as established that China and Europeid not materially economically The Hawaiian Islands Their Resources, Agricultural, Commercial and Financial differ around 1800 He never addresses cultureifferences in any substantial way as I say this is a book about the economicmaterial axis of the Great Divergence He therefore turns to why China and Europe UNCOMMON GROUND: Archaeology and Early African America 1650-1800 diverged after 1800 He examines many varied theories including consumption of luxury goods firm structure state control and expropriation interstate violence and so on Along the way he rejects the common left wing trope that Asia was heading toward an industrial revolution until crushed by Western imperialism Rather the entire world was heading for a common proto industrial cule sac in which the Malthusian Trap would maintain primacy until the uniue combination of coal and the New World allowed Europe to escapeThis is what Pomeranz outlines in Part Three He admits that technological creativity was the real Alien n Outlaw Galactic Alliance driver of the Industrial Revolution but claims that coal and the New World made that creativity possible Every part of the world had ever increasing constraints on growth because without something newiminishing returns were kicking in Fuel fiber and food were all getting harder to obtain ecological Gem is Mine but Heart is Your damage was becoming widespread asifferent areas struggled to feed growing populations and that amage was rapidly mortgaging the future But the New World abolished the land constraint for the West allowing manufactured goods made without much land use to be exchanged for land intensive food and fiber "that could not have been produced in the same way within the Old World And coal been produced in the same way within the Old World And coal those manufactured goods to "could not have been produced in the same way within the Old World And coal allowed those manufactured goods to produced in ever greater uantities creating an expanding engine of growthPomeranz relies heavily on Denmark as a possible alternate path for Europe the exception that proves the rule Denmark had no takeoff until the 20th Century instead relying on increasingly intensive agriculture with iminishing returns and it had very little industry Denmark s path was in fact very similar to the path taken by China Pomeranz believes this shows that the path of ecological near self sufficiency through rural labor intensification once adopted was not easily abandoned and that this path was the alternate path that Europe as a whole might have taken along with the rest of the world which raises the uestion whether we Narcissistic Abuse d all still be living in a world euivalent to 1800 otherwise Maybe But this ignores the extremely significant culturalifferences between Denmark and all of Scandinavia but especially Denmark and other parts of Europe Denmark is well known for the so called Jante Law which is as Wikipedia tells us a pattern of group behavior towards individuals within Nordic countries that negatively portrays and criticizes individual success and achievement as unworthy and inappropriate It is well covered in Michael Booth s recent The Almost Nearly Perfect People and provides an extremely plausible reason for Nordic economic backwardness The crushing of excellence as shown by achievement necessarily leads to less or zero achievement Thus it s not only as between Eurasia and Europe that cultural Tardis - Timeline differences matter though as I say Pomeranz mostly ignores them but also in Europe Another similar example is Spain which after it promptly spent its own New World gains immediately sank into economic stagnation and stayed there Therefore the existence of cultures in Europe that like China failed to advance might beue to coal and the land constraint Or it might be Alien Husband Alien Bride due to their own internal culturaleficiencies which Pomeranz The Violent Stepfather 2 does not addressReview continued as first comment A truly excellently researched and thorough argument against European exceptionalism in the Industrial Revolution and that there was something special about Europe that made it inevitable that the IR should happen In Pomeranz s view the only thingsifferent about Europe and China and by Pretentious circumvoluted and unsubstantiated revisionist blabber apparently solely written for the sake of contrarian revisionism in itself There is nothing scientific here in spite of the tepid flow of anecdotal facts all about as relevant to the main story the emergence of economic growth from the Malthusian world as eckchair moves were to the history of the Titanic Economic history is one through models not from selected anecdotes Shame on an otherwise Readers Guide to African Literature dependable publisher for having lent credence to this JanuaryFebruary 2015 Truly this is one of the toughest books we graduate historians must read Pomeranz s ideas are great but the book s readability is not the best If you re a casual reader this is NOT the book for you This book is for serious students of economics history and political science and environmental science now that I think about itKenneth Pomeranz argues uite compellingly that we must stop privileging the West as innately superior to the East He specifically wants to abandon ideas that Europe especially Britain was somehow predestined to experience the Industrial Revolution and surpass Asia technologically To this end he amasses a bunch of statisticalata and evaluates the state of Chinese Japanese Indian British and continental European economics in the 1700s Pomeranz shows that China and Japan in particular had relatively high levels of proto industrialization as well as impressive trade networks On issues like lifespan wages creature comfort the competitiveness of local markets etc China in particular often surpasses Great Britain So Pomeranz Distributed Operating Systems Algorithms does a good job of showing that the Industrial Revolution could have happened anywhereWhyid the Revolution happen in England and not China then For Pomeranz the key is an influx of natural resources sugar cotton timber and fossil fuels from the New World Supporting factors included the harnessing of coal and other fossil fuels in Britain new tech population growth in Britain s eveloped cities as opposed to Chinese population growth in the farmlands and precious metals silver from the New World that Europeans could use trade with AsiaCritiues that have arisen for the book Pomeranz makes the industrial ivergence between East and West sound sudden than it probably was Some of the Do Better data is awfully speculative and based on smallatasets from China et al Some of the comparisons between Britain and provinces of China and India are pretty broad The last three chapters of the book are poorly organized compared to the extremely well organized first three chapters Near the end of the book the prose becomes extremely Toward a critical realist reading of African and African diaspora literatures. dense Pomeranz could have explored the role of science and fossil fuels a most tantalizing motif he touches upon in far greateretailBut the big takeaways Maybe we should A WEALTH OF ACADEMIC IELTS ESSAYS define modernity based on who harnessed fo. Ucts shortages that were only partly resolved by tradePomeranz argues that Europe's nineteenth centuryivergence from the Old World owes much to the fortunate location of coal which substituted for timber This made Europe's failure to use its land intensively much less of a problem while allowing growth in energy intensive industries Another crucial Dangerously in Love difference that he notes has too with trade Fortuitous global conjunctures made the Americas a greater source of needed primary products for Europe than any Asian periphery This allowed Northwest Europe to grow ramatically in population specialize further in manufactures and remove labor from the land usin. .